Hormones are chemical substances secreted by the body‘s internal glands which influence the growth processes, sexual development, the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and more. Hormonal disorders can disrupt the appearance of menstruation, ovulation process, changes occurring in the cervix etc. Sometimes, other gland disorders can disrupt hormone secretion by follicles in the ovary and thus, lead to deficiencies in the ovulation process, implantation of pregnancy, problems in the womb or its "support" in the first trimester.
These are disorders in the path of the egg and the sperm towards their meeting in the fallopian tube or in the path of a fertilized egg to the womb. Due to the malfunction or obstruction in the fallopian tubes or cervical canal, the meeting between the egg and the sperm might not take place or the fertilized egg will not be able to reach the uterine cavity from the distant edge of the fallopian tube, towards implantation. Scars (adhesions), benign tumors (fibroids/ myomas / polyps) or congenital defects in the womb (septum, bicornuate uterus), prevent the migration of the embryo and its implantation.
The age of the woman
After 35, there is a decrease in fertility due to significantly more genetic egg defects.
After 40, these deficiencies can not be avoided and cause a significant decrease in the "ability" of the eggs to create a pregnancy or a genetically normal pregnancy.
Fertility disorders in men are mainly due to deficiencies in sperm quantity, its form and motility. In most cases, those deficiencies can be identified in a laboratory examination of the sperm, indicating its current state. Hormonal blood tests help define the testicle‘s ability to produce and allow normal sperm cells to obtain their maturity. Immunological blood and semen culture tests point to different infections as a reason for sperm deficiencies. Medical consultations, genetic testing of the patient, sperm cells and the embryos created as a result of egg fertilization, will reveal if a genetic disorder of the sperm cells are responsible for the infertility.
The long period of sperm cell maturation in the testicles (about three months), external factors, such as chemical substances, way of life, radiation etc, might influence the sperm‘s ability to fertilize, from a genetic standpoint.
The Man‘s Age
The man‘s age also influences the ability of the sperm cells to initiate a pregnancy or normal pregnancy (excluding those ending in a first trimester abortion).
A significant decrease is observed in men after the age of 50, similar to women around the age of 40. This phenomenon is related to genetic changes (possibly failures) in the sperm cells, which worsen with the age.